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The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest (about 1 million km which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of .His efforts to create an institution of higher learning in Poland were finally rewarded when Pope Urban V granted him permission to open the University of Kraków.Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great.More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles.In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a democratic republic.In 1226, Konrad I of Masovia, one of the regional Piast dukes, invited the Teutonic Knights to help him fight the Baltic Prussian pagans; a decision that led to centuries of warfare with the Knights.
The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented.
His son, Casimir III (reigned 1333–70), has a reputation as one of the greatest Polish kings, and gained wide recognition for improving the country's infrastructure.
Casimir III realized that the nation needed a class of educated people, especially lawyers, who could codify the country's laws and administer the courts and offices.
Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in approximately 750 BC.
During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became particularly prominent.